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叶 航

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人类天性中的同情心与正义感来自何处?  

2011-11-14 16:28:03|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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人类天性中的同情心与正义感来自何处?

 

    如果看见一个溺水者,我们会伸出援助之手吗?如果看见一个虐婴者,我们会挺身指责吗?尽管这些行为会给我们自身带来风险,但在大多数情况下,我们每一个人都不会袖手旁观。同情弱者以及对不公正的事情表示愤慨,似乎是人类的天性和我们行为中某种固有的倾向。生物学家把这种行为称作“利他主义行为”(Altruistic behavior),经济学家把这种行为称作“亲社会行为”(Prosocial behavior),伦理学家则把这种行为称作“道德行为”。但从进化论角度看,这些行为什么能够存在,却一直是一个有待解释和充满争议的难题。因为,在进化过程中,这些行为会增加其他人的适应性(fitness)而同时却减少行为者自身的适应性。通过一个附带同情和惩罚的公共品博弈模型,我们证明了,人类的利他主义行为与人类非对称性互惠的公共合作是一个共生演化的复杂系统。在这一复杂系统中,利他主义行为可以为非对称性互惠的公共合作的形成提供条件,而公共合作所产生的合作剩余则可以为利他主义行为的进化提供支持。我们的研究结果表明,人类的利他主义行为及人类天性中所具有的道德感是在人类长期进化过程中由自然选择通过一种被我们称为“共生选择”(co-selection)的机制所赋予的。

     由浙江大学跨学科社会科学研究中心(ICSS)完成的这项研究,最近发表在国际著名的以计算机仿真研究社会科学问题的杂志Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation(人工社会与社会仿真)2011年第4期上:

     

Hang Ye, Fei Tan, Mei Ding, Yongmin Jia and Yefeng Chen (2011)

 

Sympathy and Punishment:

Evolution of Cooperation in Public Goods Game

 

Received: 09-Nov-2010    Accepted: 11-May-2011    Published: 31-Oct-2011


Abstract

An important way to maintain human cooperation is punishing defection. However, since punishment is costly, how can it arise and evolve given that individuals who contribute but do not punish fare better than the punishers? This leads to a violation of causality, since the evolution of punishment is prior to the one of cooperation behaviour in evolutionary dynamics. Our public goods game computer simulations based on generalized Moran Process, show that, if there exists a 'behaviour-based sympathy' that compensates those who punish at a personal cost, the way for the emergence and establishment of punishing behaviour is paved. In this way, the causality violation dissipates. Among humans sympathy can be expressed in many ways such as care, praise, solace, ethical support, admiration, and sometimes even adoration; in our computer simulations, we use a small amount of transfer payment to express 'behaviour-based sympathy'. Our conclusions indicate that, there exists co-evolution of sympathy, punishment and cooperation. According to classical philosophy literature, sympathy is a key factor in morality and justice is embodied by punishment; in modern societies, both the moral norms and the judicial system, the representations of sympathy and punishment, play an essential role in stable social cooperation.

Keywords:
Public Goods Game, Cooperation, Social Dilemma, Co-Evolution, Sympathy, Punishment 

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by Chinese Ministry of Education 211 Project Phase 3 fund, the Center for Research of Private Economy (one of the key research institutes of social sciences and humanities and national innovation bases of philosophy and social sciences, Chinese Ministry of Education) and Center for the Study of Language and Cognition (one of the national innovation bases of philosophy and social sciences, Chinese Ministry of Education), Zhejiang University. Thanks also go to our strategic partner, Zhejiang Hexin Flush Network Services Ltd., especially to Mr. Zhenqiu Cai for assisting us with the simulation software.

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