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恶意造就了人类?  

2007-07-25 02:15:13|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

    下面这篇文章是《科学》杂志2007年7月16日最新发表的关于动物行为的一个实验报告,其详细情况刊登在最近一期的美国国家科学院院报(PNAS)上。动物行为,尤其是人类的近亲黑猩猩和大猩猩,与人类行为的比较研究,是西方学术界最近10多年来非常热门的领域。我们可以在《科学》与《自然》等杂志上频繁地看到相关的研究文献。这也许缘于这样一种信念:如果人类是进化而来的,那么他们的行为就应该与他们的动物远亲接近而不是截然不同。人类的许多行为,都可以从他们的动物祖先身上找到影子。例如,下面这篇文献中提到的对违反社会规范行为的惩罚愿望,就不仅表现在人类身上,同时也表现在黑猩猩的身上。

    当然,对该文标题所表现出来的倾向,我是持怀疑态度的。恶意行为往往来自人类的妒嫉心理。而此前动物学家已经有许多实验证明了动物尤其是灵长类动物和人一样,具有强烈的妒嫉心理。而恰恰只有人类,可以通过自己的意志力量来克服妒嫉。

    此文由王志坚老师提供提供了网络链接晚上浏览了一遍觉得挺有趣的,就顺便把它译了出来。没有仔细推敲译文,错误与疏漏还望诸位将就了。我把原文附在后面,大家也可以直接阅读。

 

恶意造就了人类?

By Veronica Raymond

Science NOW Daily News,2007年7月16日

    黑猩猩会报复并严厉地处罚一个做坏事的同伴,但最近的研究表明,它们不会无故地伤害另一只黑猩猩,尽管它们可以这样做。恶意,看来也许是一种人类所特有情感。黑猩猩有一种明显的是非感,而且讨厌不公平的现象,比如被剥夺了它们正在努力获取的食物。德国莱比锡马克思·普朗克演化人类学研究院的演化生物学家基思·詹森(Keith Jensen)想知道黑猩猩是否会有恶意行为。詹森和他的同事们把两个黑猩猩面对面地分别置于两个笼子里,在它们之间的桌子上放了一些花生。两个黑猩猩中的一个,无法够到桌子,但却可以通过笼子里的一根绳索来拉倒桌子,从而剥夺其同胞的食品。但黑猩猩却没有这样做。这一行为说明,自己无法得到食物,却并不导致拒绝其他黑猩猩得到食物卑鄙愿望,这是这个研究小组本周在美国国家科学院院报(PNAS)网站上公布的结论。

    但如果食物是被偷吃的,无论小偷是黑猩猩还是人,这只黑猩猩还能这样随遇而安吗? 为了找到答案,研究者在它们之间桌子上的滑动托盘里放上了可供动物食用的花生,像上一次试验一样,一个黑猩猩可以拉动绳索,倾覆食品托盘。但是,不同的是,这次两只黑猩猩都可以得到食物,但其中的一只只有在一个规定的时间里才可以这样做。当这只黑猩猩离开绳索时,让第二只黑猩猩从滑动托盘中取食物, 或者由实验人员将食物带走给另一只没有绳索的黑猩猩。当另一只黑猩猩试图偷取食物的时候,不高兴的黑猩猩拉动绳索的次数几乎达到50%,对偷盗食物而不满的黑猩猩表现出惩罚的倾向。但如果是一个人将食物拿去给其他黑猩猩,那么这只黑猩猩拉动绳索的次数大约是20%。“这就像一个小孩面对一大块蛋糕,如果是一个大人将它给了另一个孩子,”詹森说,“可能不会像一个孩子从另一个孩子那里偷走蛋糕那样引起同样的愤怒”。“黑猩猩的行为,”他说,“显示出它们只惩罚那些具有冒犯行为的黑猩猩”。詹森小组现正感兴趣的是,他们在实验中所揭示出的微妙行为能够延伸多远——例如,如果一只黑猩猩看到另一只黑猩猩做了错事,它会不会放弃自己找到的食物来惩罚另一只黑猩猩?

    “我们通常只关注黑猩猩的正面形象”,加州大学洛杉矶分校的人类学家琼·苏克评论说:“这项研究只是我们所看到的非常罕见的黑猩猩们如何应付对它们不利的局面,以及动物的行为怎样吻合或者偏离我们人类。”

 

原文: 

What Makes Us Human? Spite. 

By Veronica Raymond  

ScienceNOW Daily News  16 July 2007   

    Chimpanzees can be vengeful, aggressively punishing a wrongdoer, but new research shows that they will not hurt another chimp just because they can. Spite, it seems, may be an exclusively human emotion.  Chimps have a distinct sense of right and wrong and dislike unfair occurrences, such as being denied food they were working towards acquiring. Evolutionary biologist Keith Jensen of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, wanted to know whether chimps can be spiteful. Jensen and his colleagues placed two chimps into separate cages facing one another, with a table in between them that held peanuts. One of the two chimps, which could not access the table, nonetheless had the power to deprive its compatriot of food, by pulling a rope in its cage and collapsing the table. But the chimp did that no more often than in another experiment where it was alone. Frustration at being unable to reach the food itself, not a petty desire to deny food to the other chimp, was behind its behavior, the team concludes this week online in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    But would the chimp be this accommodating if food it was eating were stolen from it, and would it care whether a chimp or a human was the thief? To find out, the researchers offered the animals peanuts on a sliding tray on top of the table standing between them. As in the first experiment, one chimp could pull a rope to upset the food tray. Here, however, both chimps could access the food--but only one at a time could do so. While the chimp with the rope was chomping away, either the second chimp would slide the tray of food from it, or a researcher would take the food away and offer it to the chimp without the rope. The disgruntled chimp pulled the rope almost 50% of the time when the other chimp stole its food, showing a tendency to punish the offending chimp for theft by cutting off its access to the food. But when it was a human who took the food away to give to the other chimp, the chimp only pulled the rope about 20% of the time.    "It's like a kid with a big slice of cake, and then having an adult take it to give to another kid," says Jensen--something that may not prompt the same outrage as one child stealing cake from another. The chimp's behavior, he says, shows that it punishes the chimp only when it's the offender. Jensen's group is now interested in examining how far this nuanced behavior extends--for example, whether, if a chimp sees another do wrong, it will give up food to see that chimp punished.

    "We normally focus on the positive aspects of chimps," says anthropologist Joan Silk of the University of California, Los Angeles. This study, she says, "is one of the few times where we look at how they respond to situations that are disadvantageous to them," and how the animals' behavior coincides with or diverges from that of humans.

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